And mining plays a big role in making the sport possible.
Hockey sticks, skates and nets are all made of materials mined in Canada.
The most popular hockey sticks are one-piece composite sticks — typically of graphite, though unique materials such as Kevlar and titanium are also used, and occasionally coatings such as nickel cobalt are applied for added strength.
Blades on hockey skates are generally made of tempered steel and coated with a high-quality chrome. Some blade manufacturers may add titanium to the metal.
Graphite, titanium, steel, chrome, nickel and cobalt are all mined in Canada. In fact, Nickel was first discovered in Canada in 1883, and began being mined in the 1890s.
Today, Canada is one of the world’s five top five nickel-producing countries.
None of the great cultures in the period of history before the Middle Ages could have prospered without mastering copper and its metallurgy.
Copper was one of the first metals used by humans, dating back to the Stone Age, the prehistoric period in human civilization where stone was widely used to make implements with hard edges, points and surfaces.
Stone Age societies between 9000 BC to 2000 BC began to hard work (hammer) copper into sheets and shapes without smelting. Copper ornaments and jewelry, and new types of tools and weapons made with copper replaced or enhanced existing stone tools. The oldest copper ornament identified to date was found at an archaeological site in Northern Iraq, estimated to date from around 8700 BC. The working of copper enabled Stone Age societies to progress into the Copper Age, dating from around 4500 BC to 3500 BC.
Copper pipelines of a water supply system dating 5000 BC were found in an Egyptian Pyramid, and copper was the first metal to be hammered into bowls around 4000 BC.
The Copper Age transitioned into the Bronze Age around 3300 BC with the discovery of the process of melting a mixture of copper and tin to produce bronze. The Bronze Age period was then followed by the Iron Age around 1500 BC.
Several inventions during the Middle Ages secured the use of copper in modern society. Copper was instrumental in the invention of printing due to the ease with which copper sheets could be engraved or etched for use as printing plates. From the late 16th Century, a volume with plates becomes the standard form of an illustrated book. The first known maps and charts were printed using copper plates in the late 1400s.
By the middle of the 18th Century, copper had several important uses including copper sheathing on the hulls of wooden ships, bells, bronze guns, brass wire (for the woolen industry), stained glass windows, weights and measures, bronze doors, gates, grilles, tombs, statutes, enameling and weather-vanes.
Perhaps the greatest use of copper – and the first use of copper in electrical wiring – rose from Michael Faraday’s discovery of electromagnetic induction in 1831 “and the subsequent development of the electrical engineering industry, including the invention of the electrical telegraph in the early nineteenth century, which involved sending electrical signals along copper wire.”
For the first time, it was possible to transmit near instant messages across continents and under oceans with widespread social and economic impacts. The invention of the telephone in 1876 created further demand for copper wire as an electrical conductor.
Michael Goehring, CEO, Mining Association of BC discusses mining’s important role in the green economy.
“BC is a hotbed of innovation, so our industry is working closely with BC’ tech sector so we can conserve more, waste less, and reduce our environmental footprint.”
“The minerals and metals that BC produces – copper, silver, gold, steel-making coal, aluminum, molybdenum – they are all essential to a low-carbon future. An electric vehicle takes four times as much copper as a traditional internal combustion vehicle. You can’t make solar panels without silver. And you can’t transmit power from solar panels without copper. Our mineral sand metals are essential to a low carbon future.”
“We now know, in BC, our steel-making coal – which is critical to renewable energy infrastructure – wind mills, for example, has half the GHG emissions intensity as our competitors in Australia. BC’s Copper has about 40-50% less GHG emissions than copper from Chile. Our industry has been reducing its GHGs for several decades. The real driver is our clean energy, driven out of our hydroelectric assets.”
An exploration area at the Mount Polley site called the Frypan/Morehead, located west and north of the mine, covering approximately 3 x 3 kilometres, has recently been the focus of exploration. This area is a largely till covered magnetic high with a similar magnetic response to that obtained over the Mount Polley mine host rock of monzonite and hydrothermally altered monzonite breccia pipes.
A total of 948 soil samples were collected and analyzed using the Mobile Metal Ion technique. SJ Geophysics completed an 80.7 line kilometre Volterra-3D Induced Polarization (IP) survey covering the same grid area. Numerous, high priority targets were outlined.
Another Volterra-3D Induced Polarization (IP) survey was conducted over the Mount Polley mine site to identify the geophysical response of the known mineralization to aid in prioritizing targets on the Frypan/Morehead area. The survey consisted of 81.5 line kilometres and was successful in delineating the known mineralization, as well as outlining several new un-tested areas in the vicinity of the mine.
A drill program is planned to test the geophysical anomalies.
Environmental monitoring programs and closure research projects at Mount
Polley mine site continue as planned. Remediation
construction at the lower Hazeltine Creek and Edney Creek began this summer.
Mount Polley staff, with assistance from Golder Associates Ltd., have begun development
of the 2022 Water Management Plan.
include regular water quality and toxicity sampling at:
water treatment plant (WTP)
surface waters of Polley Lake, Bootjack Lake, Hazeltine
Creek, Edney Creek & Quesnel Lake
mine contact waters including groundwater &
mine seepage with flow rates
Regular inspections of
all critical ditches, sumps, ponds, pumping systems and pipelines.
Ongoing surveys and
spawning activity in Hazeltine & Edney Creeks
remediated terrestrial habitats; vegetation growth, nesting sites and wildlife usage
aquatic habitats; fish population & tissue, zooplankton, phytoplankton, benthic invertebrates and sediments in Bootjack, Polley & Quesnel Lakes
dilution modelling of the Quesnel Lake discharge
semi-passive and passive water treatment options for closure which include a constructed wetland treatment system pilot study and a saturated rock fill bench scale test
The remediation of Hazeltine Creek has been planned and advanced through the direct collaboration of Mount Polley mine employees, government agencies, First Nations and their technical advisors. This collective is called the Habitat Remediation Working Group (HRWG).
Recently, members of Mount Polley mine, Golder Associates Ltd, FLNRO (Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development) and the Xatśūll First Nation attended a September 2020 HRWG tour.
On the tour the HRWG inspected the construction of habitat features in Lower Hazeltine Creek. The group also inspected the weir and fish ladder at Polley Lake, the functioning spawning habitat in Upper Hazeltine Creek and the terrestrial plant growth in Polley Flats.
The group viewed all stages of remediation, from installation of habitat features to a remediated ecosystem in Upper Hazeltine Creek that is maturing into a self-sustaining landscape used by all manners of life forms.
Discussions on the tour included: • Local nursery plant sources; • Local contractors support in the remediation efforts; • Reflections on how far the remediation has advanced; • Reopening plans for the mine; • Plans for the continued use of the weir on Polley Lake for flood control and fish rearing in Hazeltine Creek until the plants in the terrestrial flood plain mature; and • In stream habitat features installed are potentially superior to those that existed pre-2014.
Below are some photos from the tour (September 2020).
Lately we have received questions about the water quality at Quesnel Lake, so here are a few Q&A’s which address this subject.
First, what it means to conduct remediation?
According to the BC Environmental Management Act, “remediation” means action to eliminate, limit, correct, counteract, mitigate or remove any contaminant or the adverse effects on the environment or human health of any contaminant.
At Mount Polley, using the results of the detailed site investigations, and the human healthand ecological risk assessments, the goal of the mine’s environmental remediation work is to repair and rehabilitate the areas impacted by the tailings spill such that they are on a path to self-sustaining ecological processes that result in productive and connected habitats for aquatic and terrestrial species.
As the impacts of the spill were determined to be primarily physical and not chemical, this has meant that the focus of the work has been on repairing and rebuilding habitats.
Where can I find data about the water quality in Quesnel Lake?
The BC government website hosts an interactive mapof surface water monitoring sites in the Province which gives access to results of water sampling and analyses, including Quesnel Lake and other surface water sites around the area of the mine.
Why was the decision made to leave the tailings at the bottom of Quesnel Lake?
Research and monitoring of the physical and chemical stability of the tailings on the bottom of Quesnel Lake indicate that they are not causing pollution and studies of the bottom-dwelling (benthic) organisms have shown that they are slowly recolonizing the lake bottom as native sediment slowly deposits on top of the organic-poor tailings, bringing organic matter to the lake floor.
After completing a Net Environmental Benefit (NEB) assessment, experts recommended that the best approach for remediation of the tailings in Quesnel Lake was to leave them alone and cause no further disturbance.
The experts determined that any attempt to remove the tailings could significantly disrupt the present ecosystem and set back the progress that had already occurred.
Remediation at Mount Polley is all about creating the conditions for successful natural recovery, and not doing more damage.
The following provides some comments from Mount Polley Mining Corporation (MPMC) on the Hamilton paper (Hamilton, et al. 2020) regarding Quesnel Lake in relation to the TSF Breach at Mount Polley. The note is divided into general comments, specific comments, and then provides an update on Quesnel Lake water quality, and some key observations from recent sediment and aquatic life monitoring, which support the MPMC comments on the paper. This is not a comprehensive review of the paper.
The Hamilton paper provides a summary of a considerable amount of monitoring data collected in Quesnel Lake, including from automated moorings. (Note: MPMC contributed to this research through the purchase of a number of new instruments for the moorings in the fall of 2014.)
The paper focusses on seasonal observations of a slight increase in turbidity deep in the West Basin, and on physical lake dynamics. It also introduces some hypotheses regarding new mechanisms of lake water movement. MPMC is pleased to have contributed to this enhanced understanding of water movements in large lakes.
However, we are concerned that important monitoring data, available on our web site or directly from MPMC or our consultants, was not referred to or incorporated into interpretations made in the Hamilton paper. The use of information that is readily available from MPMC’s web site or directly from MPMC or its consultants would have helped address some of the authors’ concerns, particularly about future impacts to aquatic life and contamination.
Unfortunately, the paper does not include data from the mine’s monitoring nor any other data on these topics. The paper contains a number of interesting scientific observations, but these do not necessarily indicate an environmentally consequential measurement.
Specific Comments on the Hamilton et al (2020) paper:
Mount Polley’s monitoring data indicates that contaminant levels in Quesnel Lake are not elevated. The paper identifies a small turbidity signal at depth, but turbidity does not necessarily indicate contamination. (See below for a description of “what is turbidity”.)
Hamilton et al’s data from 2015 to 2017 indicate a significant decline in the seasonal turbidity signal they measured since the spill in 2014. This observation agrees with MPMC’s monitoring data.
The turbidity values measured by both MPMC and Hamilton et al are belowBC water quality guidelines, which are based on a 30-day average. (The BC Guidelines allow for increases to 10 NTU for short durations.)
There are no data presented in the paper from 2018, 2019 or 2020. This is a significant shortcoming of the paper being able to speak to the current situation, or to future impacts. MPMC has monitoring data for 2018 to 2020 for a number of sites in the lake that the researchers could have used to assess trends after 2017 for both water quality and aquatic ecosystem health.
The levels of turbidity measured by Hamilton et al deep in the West Basin are quite low. (Between winter 2015 and winter 2017 they range from highs of approximately 2.3 FTU, to less than 0.5 FTU.) Turbidity is a measure of “cloudiness” due to particulates in water, however, the levels of turbidity being measured in this paper are not easily seen with the naked eye (in other words, instruments are required to measure these levels).
The paper provides background (pre-spill) data that indicate that the turbidity signal they observed at depth is at or below the level of natural turbidity events in the West Basin in the past (for example, a plume from the Horsefly River in May 2008 increased the turbidity in surface water of the West Basin to greater than 2.0 FTU as seen in Figure 3 in the paper). Natural turbidity events, such as are associated with heavy rains, spring freshet (snowmelt) or high-water floods, can generate similar or higher levels of turbidity. This summer, high creek and river levels generated muddy, debris-laden, flows into Quesnel Lake.
The paper postulates suspension of material from an unconsolidated layer of particulates at or near the bottom of the lake. While the unconsolidated layer identified in core samples is interesting, there is no data in the paper on what the particulates are that make up this layer. MPMC has reached out to the authors with an offer to either do this work on their samples or contribute funding to fill this information gap. Note that the paper does not say that tailings are resuspending off the bottom of the lake. Note also that MPMC sediment monitoring has observed natural material, with organic carbon, settling into sediment traps placed on the bottom of Quesnel Lake and presumably covering tailings.
There is no data in the paper that indicates that the particulates associated with their turbidity signal are contaminated with any metals or chemicals of concern. MPMC’s monitoring shows that water quality in Quesnel Lake is below the BC Water Quality Guidelines, except during spring freshet when area creeks naturally discharge elevated turbidity and copper.
MPMC supports the Hamilton et al observation of no visible colour change in the lake since 2014. This confirms MPMC’s observations.
Mount Polley’s water discharge is permitted by the BC Government and is within strict permit guidelines that are protective of sensitive aquatic life. The paper noted a small increase in specific conductance associated with the MPMC treated water discharge in 2016, but also noted that there was no turbidity signal associated with this discharge. These data agree with Mount Polley’s monitoring data. MPMC’s monitoring continues to show that water quality in Quesnel Lake is below the BC Water Quality Guidelines except during spring freshet when area creeks naturally discharge elevated turbidity and copper and when MPMC are typically not discharging because of restrictive permit requirements.
The paper expresses concern about the potential resuspension of spill material from Quesnel Lake and its impacts on juvenile sockeye salmon, while not including data DFO collected on juvenile salmon in the West Basin in 2014, the year of the spill, nor acknowledging that the 2014 juveniles were the cohort that “returned in droves” to the Quesnel Lake watershed in 2018. This juvenile salmon cohort would presumably have been the most impacted as they were feeding in Quesnel Lake the year of the spill, yet there has been no indication that the tailings spill had a deleterious effect on their feeding or their returns four years later.
Mount Polley is very pleased to see that the paper noted that the MPMC remediation of Hazeltine Creek“reduced sediment loads as no turbidity signal >0.2 FTU above background was detected near its mouth from 2015 through 2017”.
Quesnel Lake Water Quality
There is no evidence of pollution being
caused in Quesnel Lake related to the Mount Polley spill. This is affirmed by MPMC monitoring and by
BC ENV comments to the MPMC’s Public Liaison Committee.
Results of the Comprehensive Environmental
Monitoring Program (CEMP) – Sediment and Aquatic Life (Minnow, March 2020) monitoring
using DGT instruments in Quesnel Lake indicate:
concentrations in 2019 “were well below [freshwater aquatic life] effects
there is “strong evidence of … post-depositional
stability of the sediments impacted by the breach”, i.e. there is no
indication that metals are leaching out of tailings into the water in Quesnel
analytes in 2019 were all below BCWQG’s”, i.e. all metals analyzed using the
DGT’s were below the BC Water Quality Guideline thresholds for protection of
freshwater aquatic life.
The definition of Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of
a fluid caused by suspended solids that are usually invisible to the naked eye.
The measurement of Turbidity is an important test when trying to determine the
quality of water. It is an aggregate optical property of the water and does not
identify individual substances; it just says something is there. Water almost
always contains suspended solids that consist of many different particles of
varying sizes. Some of the particles are large enough and heavy enough to
eventually settle to the bottom of a container if a sample is left standing
(these are the settleable solids). The smaller particles will only settle
slowly, if at all (these are the colloidal solids). It’s these particles that
cause the water to look turbid.
Hamilton, A. K., B. E. Laval, E. L. Petticrew, S. J.
Albers, M. Allchin, S. A. Baldwin, E. C. Carmack, et al. 2020. “Seasonal
Turbidity Linked to Physical Dynamics in a Deep Lake Following the Catastrophic
2014 Mount Polley Mine Tailings Spill.” Water Resources Research
56. doi:https://doi.org/ 10.1029/2019WR025790.
After the spill, a population monitoring program on Polley Lake indicated there had probably been a reduction in the age class of the population of Rainbow Trout (as upper Hazeltine Creek was the main spawning area for these trout). There was spawning observed in Frypan Creek at the north end of Polley Lake, however it was noted to be a much smaller habitat. The Mount Polley Environmental Team (MPET) recognized it was important to allow the fish to spawn in Hazeltine Creek, but the Habitat Remediation Working Group (HRWG) had concerns whether the spawn in the reconstructed Hazeltine Creek would be successful.
The MPET developed a backup plan. With guidance provided by Minnow Environmental and David Petkovich (Aqua-culturist), over 11,000 Rainbow Trout fry were raised in an on-site fish hatchery in spring 2018. Eggs were harvested and fertilized from some of the local Rainbow Trout that had returned to upper Hazeltine Creek to spawn.
The fertilized eggs were incubated in trays so temperature, flow and dissolved oxygen levels could be regularly monitored. Water intake was sourced from below the thermocline in Polley Lake in order to maintain cooler water temperatures.
Within two months, the eggs hatched into alevins (yolk-sac fry) and within another two weeks the yolk sacs were completely absorbed. Throughout the incubation stage the eggs were counted, and unfertilized eggs removed.
The fry were then transferred from the incubation trays to shallow rearing tanks. When the fish reached their target biomass, they were transferred into deeper rearing tanks, and from there released into the Polley Lake watershed.
The MPET and Minnow Environmental released over 11,100 Rainbow trout fry from the hatchery into Polley Lake on September 25 and 26, 2018. The adipose fins from each fry were clipped as a means of tagging (identification). On the second day, students, parents and a teacher from Columneetza Middle School’s Greenologists / Enviro Club based in Williams Lake assisted with the Rainbow Trout fry release
Mount Polley strongly encourages Polley Lake fishers to report if they catch fish with a clipped adipose fin to email@example.com. This will help the MPET determine how successfully the hatchery trout are surviving. Thank you!